Ancestors of Adam and Emma Jackson


Madog I ap GRUFFYDD [Parents]-G2703 # died in 1236. He was buried in Valle Crucis Abbey, Denbighshire, Wales. Madog married Esyllt.

Madog ap Gruffydd or Madog ap Gruffydd Maelor, was Prince of Powys Fadog 1191-1236 in north-east Wales.
He was elder son of Gruffydd Maelor and his wife, Angharad a daughter of Owain Gwynedd. He succeeded his father jointly with his brother, Owen in 1191 and on Owen's death in 1197 became the sole ruler of Powys north of River Rhaeadr and the River Tanat or Afan Tanat. Madog consolidated the possessions of his father, Gruffudd Maelor, and the territory he ruled became known as Powys Fadog in his honour. (Fadog is a gender mutation of his name, Madog). Under his son, later, Gruffydd II ap Madog, this area comprising Welsh and English Maelor, Ial, Cynllaith, Nanheudwy and part of Mochnant formed Powys Fadog, as opposed to Powys Wenwynwyn and was still referred to as Powys Fadog although it was divided up between his five sons. Madog was close to his cousin, Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, initially, but gradually distanced himself and also kept aloof from 1212 when his cousin had managed to reform the Welsh Confederacy and looked instead to King John of England, in whose pay he was, as an official ally of the English King. By 1215 he decided to ally with his cousin and remained so.

Madog ap Gruffydd Maelor died in 1236 and is buried at Valle Crucis Abbey, his own foundation, and the last Cistercian monastery to be founded in Wales. In 1956 his heraldic slab was excavated at the Abbey.

Esyllt. Esyllt married Madog I ap GRUFFYDD-G2703 #.

They had the following children.

  M i Gruffydd Maelor II ap MADOG Lord of Bromfield-M2601 # was born in 1200. He died on 07 Dec 1269.
  M ii
Gruffudd Iâl ap MADOG-M2602 was born in Powis, Montgomeryshire, Wales. He died in 1238.
  M iii
Maredudd ap MADOG-M2603 was born in Powis, Montgomeryshire, Wales. He died in 1256.
  M iv
Hywel ap MADOG-M2604 was born in Powis, Montgomeryshire, Wales. He died in 1268.
  F v
Angharad ferch MADOG-M2605 was born in Powis, Montgomeryshire, Wales.

Owain Gwynedd ap GRUFFYDD [Parents] 1, 2-G2904 # was born about 1100 in Anglesey, Wales. He died on 28 Nov 1170.

Owain Gwynedd (in English, "Owen") (c. 1100–November 28, 1170), alternatively known by the patronymic "Owain ap Gruffydd". He is occasionally referred to as Owain I of Gwynedd, or Owain I of Wales on account of his claim to be King of Wales. He is considered to be the most successful of all the north Welsh princes prior to his grandson, Llywelyn the Great. He was known as Owain Gwynedd to distinguish him from another contemporary Owain ap Gruffydd, ruler of part of Powys who was known as Owain Cyfeiliog. Owain Gwynedd was a member of the House of Aberffraw, a descendant of the senior branch from Rhodri Mawr.

Owain's father, Gruffydd ap Cynan, was a strong and long-lived ruler who had made the principality of Gwynedd the most influential in Wales during the sixty-two years of his reign, using the island of Anglesey as his power base. His mother, Angharad ferch Owain, was the daughter of Owain ab Edwin. Owain was the second of three sons of Gruffydd and Angharad.

Owain is thought to have been born on Anglesey about the year 1100. By about 1120 Gruffydd had grown too old to lead his forces in battle and Owain and his brothers Cadwallon and later Cadwaladr led the forces of Gwynedd against the Normans and against other Welsh princes with great success. His elder brother Cadwallon was killed in a battle against the forces of Powys in 1132, leaving Owain as his father's heir. Owain and Cadwaladr, in alliance with Gruffydd ap Rhys of Deheubarth, won a major victory over the Normans at Crug Mawr near Cardigan in 1136 and annexed Ceredigion to their father's realm.

On Gruffydd's death in 1137, therefore, Owain inherited a portion of a well-established kingdom, but had to share it with Cadwaladr. In 1143 Cadwaladr was implicated in the murder of Anarawd ap Gruffydd of Deheubarth, and Owain responded by sending his son Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd to strip him of his lands in the north of Ceredigion. Though Owain was later reconciled with Cadwaladr, from 1143, Owain ruled alone over most of north Wales. In 1155 Cadwaladr was driven into exile.

Owain took advantage of the civil war in England between King Stephen and the Empress Matilda to push Gwynedd's boundaries further east than ever before. In 1146 he captured the castle of Mold and about 1150 captured Rhuddlan and encroached on the borders of Powys. The prince of Powys, Madog ap Maredudd, with assistance from Earl Ranulf of Chester, gave battle at Coleshill, but Owain was victorious.

All went well until the accession of King Henry II of England in 1154. Henry invaded Gwynedd in 1157 with the support of Madog ap Maredudd of Powys and Owain's brother Cadwaladr. The invasion met with mixed fortunes. King Henry was nearly killed in a skirmish near Basingwerk and the fleet accompanying the invasion made a landing on Anglesey where it was defeated. Owain was however forced to come to terms with Henry, being obliged to surrender Rhuddlan and other conquests in the east.

Madog ap Maredudd died in 1160, enabling Owain to regain territory in the east. In 1163 he formed an alliance with Rhys ap Gruffydd of Deheubarth to challenge English rule. King Henry again invaded Gwynedd in 1165, but instead of taking the usual route along the northern coastal plain, the king's army invaded from Oswestry and took a route over the Berwyn hills. The invasion was met by an alliance of all the Welsh princes, with Owain as the undisputed leader. However there was little fighting, for the Welsh weather came to Owain's assistance as torrential rain forced Henry to retreat in disorder. The infuriated Henry mutilated a number of Welsh hostages, including two of Owain's sons.

Henry did not invade Gwynedd again and Owain was able to regain his eastern conquests, recapturing Rhuddlan castle in 1167 after a siege of three months.

The last years of Owain's life were spent in disputes with the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Becket, over the appointment of a new Bishop of Bangor. When the see became vacant Owain had his nominee, Arthur of Bardsey, elected. The archbishop refused to accept this, so Owain had Arthur consecrated in Ireland. The dispute continued, and the see remained officially vacant until well after Owain's death. He was also put under pressure by the Archbishop and the Pope to put aside his second wife, Cristin, who was his first cousin, this relationship making the marriage invalid under church law. Despite being excommunicated for his defiance, Owain steadfastly refused to put Cristin aside. Owain died in 1170, and despite having been excommunicated was buried in Bangor Cathedral by the local clergy. The annalist writing Brut y Tywysogion recorded his death "after innumerable victories, and unconquered from his youth".

He is believed to have commissioned the propaganda text, The Life of Gruffydd ap Cynan, an account of his father's life. Following his death, civil war broke out between his sons. Owain was married twice, first to Gwladus ferch Llywarch ap Trahaearn, by whom he had two sons, Maelgwn ab Owain Gwynedd and Iorwerth Drwyndwn, the father of Llywelyn the Great, then to Cristin, by whom he had three sons including Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd and Rhodri ab Owain Gwynedd. He also had a number of illegitimate sons, who by Welsh law had an equal claim on the inheritance if acknowledged by their father.

Owain had originally designated Rhun ab Owain Gwynedd as his successor. Rhun was Owain's favourite son, and his premature death in 1147 plunged his father into a deep melancholy, from which he was only roused by the news that his forces had captured Mold castle. Owain then designated Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd as his successor, but after his death Hywel was first driven to seek refuge in Ireland by Cristin's sons, Dafydd and Rhodri, then killed at the battle of Pentraeth when he returned with an Irish army. Dafydd and Rhodri split Gwynedd between them, but a generation passed before Gwynedd was restored to its former glory under Owain's grandson Llywelyn the Great.

According to legend, one of Owain's sons was Prince Madoc, who is popularly supposed to have fled across the Atlantic and colonised America.

Altogether, the prolific Owain Gwynedd is said to have had at least 22 children from two wives and at least four mistresses:

He had the following children.

  F i Angharad ferch OWAIN-O2801 #.

Gruffydd ap CYNAN King of Gwynedd 1, 2-C3001 # was born about 1055 in Dublin, Ireland. He died in 1137. He was buried in Bangor Cathedral, Wales (by the high altar). Gruffydd married Angharad ferch OWAIN-O3001 #.

Gruffydd ap Cynan (also spelled Gryffydd ap Cynan) (c. 1055 – 1137) was a King of Gwynedd. In the course of a long and eventful life, he became a key figure in Welsh resistance to Norman rule, and was remembered as King of all Wales. As a descendant of Rhodri Mawr, Gruffydd ap Cynan was a senior member of the princely house of Aberffraw.

Through his mother Gruffydd had close family connections with the Danish settlement around Dublin and he frequently used Ireland as a refuge and as a source of troops. He three times gained the throne of Gwynedd and then lost it again before regaining it once more in 1099 and this time keeping power until his death. Gruffydd laid the foundations which were built upon by his son Owain Gwynedd and his great-grandson Llywelyn the Great.

Unusually for a Welsh king or prince, a near-contemporary biography of Gruffydd, The history of Gruffydd ap Cynan, has survived. Much of our knowledge of Gruffydd comes from this source, though allowance has to be made for the fact that it appears to have been written as dynastic propaganda for one of Gruffydd's descendants. The traditional view among scholars was that it was written during the third quarter of the 12th century during the reign of Gruffydd's son, Owain Gwynedd, but it has recently been suggested that it may date to the early reign of Llywelyn the Great, around 1200. The name of the author is not known.

Most of the existing manuscripts of the history are in Welsh but these are clearly translations of a Latin original. It is usually considered that the original Latin version has been lost, and that existing Latin versions are re-translations from the Welsh. However Russell (2006) has suggested that the Latin version in Peniarth MS 434E incorporates the original Latin version, later amended to bring it into line with the Welsh text.

According to the Life of Gruffydd ap Cynan, Gruffydd was born in Dublin and reared near Swords, County Dublin in Ireland. He was the son of a Welsh Prince, Cynan ap Iago, who was a claimant to the Kingship of Gwynedd but was probably never king of Gwynedd, though his father, Gruffydd's grandfather, Iago ab Idwal ap Meurig had ruled Gwynedd from 1023 to 1039. When Gruffydd first appeared on the scene in Wales the Welsh annals several times refer to him as "grandson of Iago" rather than the more usual "son of Cynan", indicating that his father was little known in Wales. Cynan ap Iago seems to have died while Gruffydd was still young, since the History describes his mother telling him who his father was.

Gruffydd's mother, Ragnaillt, was the daughter of Olaf of Dublin, son of King Sigtrygg Silkbeard and a member of the Hiberno-Norse dynasty. Through his mother, who appears in the list of the fair women of Ireland in the Book of Leinster, Gruffydd claimed relationships with many of the leading septs in Ireland, including those of the Ua Briain.

During his many struggles to gain the kingship of Gwynedd, Gruffydd received considerable aid from Ireland, both from the Hiberno-Norse at Dublin, but also those at Wexford, and also from Muircheartach Ua Briain.

Gruffydd made his first attempt to take over the rule of Gwynedd in 1075, following the death of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn. Trahaearn ap Caradog had seized control of Gwynedd but had not yet firmly established himself. Gruffydd landed on Anglesey with an Irish force, and with the assistance of troops provided by the Norman Robert of Rhuddlan first defeated and killed Cynwrig ap Rhiwallon, an ally of Trahaearn who held Llŷn, then defeated Trahaearn himself in the battle of Gwaed Erw in Meirionnydd and gained control of Gwynedd.

Gruffydd then led his forces eastwards to reclaim territories taken over by the Normans, and despite the assistance previously given by Robert of Rhuddlan attacked and destroyed Rhuddlan castle. However tension between Gruffydd's Danish-Irish bodyguard and the local Welsh led to a rebellion in Llŷn and Trahaearn took the opportunity to counter attack, defeating Gruffydd at the battle of Bron yr Erw above Clynnog Fawr the same year.

Gruffydd fled to Ireland but in 1081 returned and made an alliance with Rhys ap Tewdwr prince of Deheubarth. Rhys had been attacked by Caradog ap Gruffydd of Gwent and Morgannwg, and had been forced to flee to the St David's Cathedral. Gruffydd this time embarked from Waterford with a force composed of Danes and Irish and landed near St David's, presumably by prior arrangement with Rhys. He was joined here by a force of his supporters from Gwynedd, and he and Rhys marched north to seek Trahaearn ap Caradog and Caradog ap Gruffydd who had themselves made an alliance and been joined by Meilyr ap Rhiwallon of Powys. The armies of the two confederacies met at the Battle of Mynydd Carn, with Gruffydd and Rhys victorious and Trahaearn, Caradog and Meilyr all being killed. Gruffydd was thus able to seize power in Gwynedd for the second time.

He was soon faced with a new enemy, as the Normans were now encroaching on Gwynedd. Gruffydd had not been king very long when he was enticed to a meeting with Hugh Earl of Chester and Hugh Earl of Shrewsbury at Rug, near Corwen. At the meeting Gruffydd was seized and taken prisoner. According to his biographer this was by the treachery of one of his own men, Meirion Goch. Gruffydd was imprisoned in Earl Hugh's castle at Chester for many years while Earl Hugh and Robert of Rhuddlan went on to take possession of Gwynedd, building castles at Bangor, Caernarfon and Aberlleiniog.

Gruffydd reappeared on the scene years later, having escaped from captivity. According to his biography he was in fetters in the market-place at Chester when Cynwrig the Tall on a visit to the city saw his opportunity when the burgesses were at dinner. He picked Gruffydd up, fetters and all, and carried him out of the city on his shoulders. There is debate among historians as to the year of Gruffydd's escape. Ordericus Vitalis mentions a "Grifridus" attacking the Normans in 1088. The History in one place states that Gruffydd was imprisoned for twelve years, in another that he was imprisoned for sixteen years. Since he was captured in 1081, that would date his release to 1093 or 1097. J.E. Lloyd favours 1093, considering that Gruffydd was involved at the beginning of the Welsh uprising in 1094. K.L. Maund on the other hand favours 1097, pointing out that there is no reference to Gruffydd in the contemporary annals until 1098. D. Simon Evans inclines to the view that Ordericus Vitalis' date of 1088 could be correct, suggesting that an argument based on the silence of the annals is unsafe.

Gruffydd again took refuge in Ireland but returned to Gwynedd to lead the assaults on Norman castles such as Aber Lleiniog. The Welsh revolt had begun in 1094 and by late 1095 had spread to many parts of Wales. This induced William II of England (William Rufus) to intervene, invading northern Wales in 1095. However his army was unable to the Welsh to battle and returned to Chester without having achieved very much. King Willam mounted a second invasion in 1097, but again without much success. The History only mentions one invasion by Rufus, which could indicate that Gruffydd did not feature in the resistance to the first invasion. At this time Cadwgan ap Bleddyn of Powys led the Welsh resistance.

In the summer of 1098 Earl Hugh of Chester joined with Earl Hugh of Shrewsbury in another attempt to recover his losses in Gwynedd. Gruffydd and his ally Cadwgan ap Bleddyn retreated to Anglesey, but then were forced to flee to Ireland in a skiff when a fleet he had hired from the Danish settlement in Ireland accepted a better offer from the Normans and changed sides.

The situation was changed by the arrival of a Norwegian fleet under the command of King Magnus III of Norway, also known as Magnus Barefoot, who attacked the Norman forces near the eastern end of the Menai Straits. Earl Hugh of Shrewsbury was killed by an arrow said to have been shot by Magnus himself. The Normans were obliged to evacuate Anglesey, and the following year Gruffydd returned from Ireland to take possession again, having apparently come to an agreement with Earl Hugh of Chester.

With the death of Hugh of Chester in 1101 Gruffydd was able to consolidate his position in Gwynedd, as much by diplomacy as by force. He met King Henry I of England who granted him the rule of Llŷn, Eifionydd, Ardudwy and Arllechwedd, considerably extending his kingdom. By 1114 he had gained enough power to induce King Henry to invade Gwynedd in a three-pronged attack, one detachment led by King Alexander I of Scotland. Faced by overwhelming force, Gruffydd was obliged to pay homage to Henry and to pay a heavy fine, but lost no territory. By about 1118 Gruffydd's advancing years meant that most of the fighting which pushed Gwynedd's borders eastward and southwards was done by his three sons by his wife Angharad, daughter of Owain ab Edwin: Cadwallon, Owain Gwynedd and later Cadwaladr. The cantrefs of Rhos and Rhufoniog were annexed in 1118, Meirionnydd captured from Powys in 1123 and Dyffryn Clwyd in 1124. Another invasion by the king of England in 1121 was a military failure. The king had to come to terms with Gruffydd and made no further attempt to invade Gwynedd during Gruffydd's reign. The death of Cadwallon in a battle against the forces of Powys near Llangollen in 1132 checked further expansion for the time being.

Gruffydd was now powerful enough to ensure that his nominee, David the Scot was consecrated as Bishop of Bangor in 1120. The see had been effectively vacant since Bishop Hervey le Breton had been forced to flee by the Welsh almost twenty years before, since Gruffydd and King Henry could not agree on a candidate. David went on to rebuild Bangor Cathedral with a large financial contribution from Gruffydd.

Owain and Cadwaladr in alliance with Gruffydd ap Rhys of Deheubarth gained a crushing victory over the Normans at Crug Mawr near Cardigan in 1136 and took possession of Ceredigion. The latter part of Guffydd's reign was considered to be a "Golden Age"; according to the Life of Gruffydd ap Cynan Gwynedd was "bespangled with lime-washed churches like the stars in the firmament".

Gruffydd died in his bed, old and blind, in 1137 and was mourned by the annalist of Brut y Tywysogion as the head and king and defender and pacifier of all Wales. He was buried by the high altar in Bangor Cathedral which he had been involved in rebuilding. He also made bequests to many other churches, including one to Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin where he had worshipped as a boy. He was succeeded as king of Gwynedd by his son Owain Gwynedd. His daughter, Gwenllian, who married Gruffydd ap Rhys of Deheubarth, son of his old ally Rhys ap Tewdwr, is also notable for her resistance to English rule.

Children
   * Cadwallon ap Gruffydd (killed 1132)
   * Owain Gwynedd (Owain ap Gruffydd), married (1) Gwladus (Gladys) ferch Llywarch, daughter of Llywarch ap Trahaearn (2) Cristin ferch Goronwy, daughter of Goronwy ab Owain
   * Cadwaladr ap Gruffydd, married Alice de Clare, daughter of Richard Fitz Gilbert de Clare
   * Susanna, married Madog ap Maredudd, prince of Powys
   * Gwenllian ferch Gruffydd, married Gruffydd ap Rhys, prince of Deheubarth

Angharad ferch OWAIN 1-O3001 #. Angharad married Gruffydd ap CYNAN King of Gwynedd-C3001 #.

They had the following children.

  M i Owain Gwynedd ap GRUFFYDD-G2904 # was born about 1100. He died on 28 Nov 1170.

Sir William de ROS [Parents] 1-R2401 # was born about 1255. He died on From 12 May 1316 to 16 Aug 1316. Sir married Maud de VAUX-V2407 # in 1287.

Summoned against the Scots in 1291, and later years, to May 1316, and in 1291, for a short time, was among the candidates for the throne of Scotland. Summoned to Parliament 6 February 1298/99 to 16 October 1315, by writs considered to have become Lord Ros of Helmsley. After the rebellion of Robert de Ros of Wark, who held Wark of him, that castle was granted to him December 1301, for good service in Gascony and elsewhere. Appointed Joint Warden of Northumberland in November 1307, and Joint Lieutenant and Warden of Scotland 21 June 1308. He was summoned to the King's coronation February 1307/08. In addition to his heir, William, he left a younger son, John de Ros (of Watton), and a daughter, Agnes, wife of Payn de Tiptoft (or Tybotot)

Maud de VAUX-V2407 #. Maud married Sir William de ROS-R2401 # in 1287.

They had the following children.

  M i Sir William de ROS 2nd Lord Ros of Helmsley-R2301 # was born about 1288. He died on 03/03 Feb 1342/1343.
  F ii Agnes de ROS-R2302 died in 1328.
  M iii John de ROS-R2303 was born about 1292. He died before 16 Nov 1338.

Payn TYBOTOT 1st Lord Tybotot-T2302 died in 1314. Payn married Agnes de ROS-R2302.

Agnes de ROS [Parents]-R2302 died in 1328. Agnes married Payn TYBOTOT 1st Lord Tybotot-T2302.


Sir Robert de ROS [Parents] 1-R2501 # was born about 1226 in Helmsley, Yorkshire. He died on 17 Mar 1285. He was buried in Kirkham Priory, Yorkshire. Sir married Isabel d' AUBIGNY-A2502 # on From 05 Jun 1243 to 17 May 1244.

Chief commissioner in Herefordshire in 1258 (to inquire as to excesses in that county), summoned the same year, and later, for service in Scotland, and against the Welsh. Sided with Simon de Montfort in 1263/64, and was holding Northampton, under the younger Simon, when the King took it in April, but within several days he had safe conduct to meet with the King. On 24 December he was summoned to de Montfort's Parliament in London. On 18 May 1265, Prince Edward escaped from his custody at Hereford and Robert surrendered Gloucester Castle to the Prince 29 June. Ten days after the battle of Evesham, at the Prince's insistance, Robert received full pardon. In November of 1276, he was one of the Council at Westminster who gave judgment against Prince Llewelyn, and was summoned for the consequent campaign. He was buried at Kirkham Priory in Yorkshire

Isabel d' AUBIGNY [Parents] 1-A2502 # died on 15 Jun 1301. Isabel married Sir Robert de ROS-R2501 # on From 05 Jun 1243 to 17 May 1244.

They had the following children.

  M i Sir William de ROS-R2401 # was born about 1255. He died on From 12 May 1316 to 16 Aug 1316.
  F ii Mary de ROS-R2402 died about 23 May 1326.

Sir William de BREUSE 1st Lord Breuse 1, 2-B2411 was born before 1227. He died on 06/06 Jan 1290/1291. He was buried on 15/15 Jan 1290/1291 in Seles Priory. Sir married Mary de ROS-R2402 before 1271.

Mary de ROS [Parents] 1-R2402 died about 23 May 1326. Mary married Sir William de BREUSE 1st Lord Breuse-B2411 before 1271.


Sir William de ROS [Parents]-R2601 # was born about 1197. He died about 1264. Sir married Lucy FITZPIERS-F2602 # about 1226.

William de Ros was included with his father in the Bull of excommunication of January 1215/16, and remained an active ally of Prince Louis until the final battle at Lincoln, 19 May 1217, where he was captured, later paying for his release from prison in October. In the service of the King in May 1224, he was sent to Poitou, and in August of that year took part in the siege of Bedford Castle. In January of 1235/36, he attested the confirmation of Magna Carta at Winchester, and in 1237 he was of the escort of the King of Scots to his meeting with Henry at York, attesting to the agreement between the two Kings. His lands were seized in 1242-43 for failure to attend the 1241 muster at Rhuddlan, and the King's expedition to France in May 1242. In 1252, he went on pilgrimage to Santiago. He and son, Robert, were summoned for service in Scotland 1257/58, against the Welsh in 1258 and 1263/64, and to London in 1260-61. It is stated that he appears to have taken no part in the Baron's war and was reputed to be loyal.

Lucy FITZPIERS [Parents]-F2602 #. Lucy married Sir William de ROS-R2601 # about 1226.

They had the following children.

  M i Sir Robert de ROS-R2501 # was born about 1226. He died on 17 Mar 1285.
  M ii
Sir William de ROS-R2502 was born about 1232. He died on 28 May 1310.

Sir William de Ros lived at Ingmanthorpe, Yorkshire

Sir William d' AUBIGNY Lord of Belvoir-A2604 #. Sir married Isabel.

Isabel. Isabel married Sir William d' AUBIGNY Lord of Belvoir-A2604 #.

They had the following children.

  F i Isabel d' AUBIGNY-A2502 # died on 15 Jun 1301.

John de ROS [Parents]-R2303 was born about 1292. He died before 16 Nov 1338. John married Margaret GOUSHILL-G2306 before 22 Apr 1314 in Whittington, Shropshire.

Margaret GOUSHILL-G2306. Margaret married John de ROS-R2303 before 22 Apr 1314 in Whittington, Shropshire.

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